Chapter 11

WHEN Raja Secander Shah had reached Moar, he remained there quiet for a time, till  one night there came a great number of  lizards, and when it was daylight it appeared that they had occupied the whole place. Then the people began killing them, and threw them in great numbers into the river; but the next night they came in as great numbers as before. At last the place became intolerable from the stench of the carcases of the lizards, and the place was denominated bewak-busok or stinking crocodile.

Raja Secander Shah was obliged to desert this station, and move to another place, where he began building a fort. By day he caused his workmen to work, but at night their work all decayed, and the name of this place was hence called Cota-buru, the rotten fort. Raja Secander Shah was also obliged to remove from this place, and after journeying long towards the interior, he reached Sangang Ujung, and perceiving it to be a fine situation, he left one of his mantris in this place, and from that time to this a mantri has always resided there.
Thence Raja Secander Shah returned to the shore of the sea, to the banks of a river named Bartam, where he hunted, standing himself to see the sport under the shade of a spreading tree. One of his dogs roused a white pelandok, which attacking the dog, drove it into the water. The raja was pleased, and said "This is a fine place, where the very pelandoks are full of courage. Let us found a city here." To this all his head men assented, and the raja enquiring the name of the tree under which he was standing, was informed that it was named  the malaca tree. "Then,"said he, " let the name of the city be called Malaca."

Raja Secander Shah now settled in Malaca, having remained in Singhapura thirty-two years, which he deserted for Malaca when Singhapura was conquered by Java, He died at last in Malaca, and his son, Raja Besar Muda reigned in his stead. He was extremely mild and gentle, and ruled according to the custom of his father, and appointed mantris to support his authority and maintain his regulations. He appointed forty bantaras to sit in office, and inform the people of the raja's orders, and the raja concerning the wishes of the people, and also orang beduanda, or messengers of the sons of great men, who were appointed to carry the raja's equipage.

This prince had three sons, the first of whom was named Radin Bagus, another Raja Tengah, and the third Radin Anum. These three Princes married the daughters of Tun Parpatih Tulos. After the death of Tun Parpatih Tulos, the Prince Radin Bagus was appointed bandahara in his stead, and assumed the title of Tun Parpatih Parmuka Berjaja. In process of time Raja Besar Muda died, and was succeeded by his son, Raja Tengah, who had a son named Raja Kichil Besar. Raja Tengah likewise died, and was succeeded by his son, Raja Kichil Besar, who was a very just prince, and protected his subjects, so that of all  the rajas of his day none were to be compared to him.

The city of Malaca also increased greatly, and acquired a numerous population, and merchants resorted to it from every quarter. This raja married the daughter of Tun Parpatih Parmuka Berjaja, who produced two sons, the one named Raja Kichil Mambang, the other Raja Macat.

After a long time that Raja Kichil Besar had reigned, he dreamed one night that he saw Nabi  Muhammed, who said to him "I testify that God is the one God, and that Muhammed is his prophet;" and Raja Kichil Besar did as he was directed by the prophet, who conferred on him the name of Sultan Muhammed. Next morning, said the prophet, at  day break, there will arrive a ship from Jidda, and will land on the shore of Malaca and perform Namaz, listen to their words. Raja Kichil Besar said, very well, he would do so, and not neglect, and immediately Nabi Muhammed vanished. 
Next morning when he awoke, his body smelt like the perfume narawastu, and he perceived that he had the appearance of being circumcised. Then said the raja, this visit is certainly not of Satan, and his mouth did not stop from pronouncing the word of testimony, so that all the female servants were astonished to hear him, and the queen said, "surely Satan has possessed the raja, or else he is gone mad; very well, we must speedily inform the bandahara." He quickly received the information, and arrived at the palace, where he found the raja continuing to repeat his confession. The bandahara asked him what language he was speaking.

The raja said he had seen the prophet Muhammed in a dream, and related to him the whole event. Then said the bandahara what token is there that the dream is true. Raja Kichil Besar said that he had the appearance  of circumcision, and that the prophet had told him, that about midday, a vessel would arrive from Jidda, and would land her crew to say prayers on the shore of Malaca, and that he was directed to conform to their directions. The bandahara was astonished, and admitted that the dream must be true, if the vessel arrived, but that otherwise it would be a seduction of Satan.

The vessel arrived at the appointed time, and landed the crew to say their prayers on the shore. In this vessel was Seyyad Abdal Azid who officiated, and all the people of Malaca were astonished, and said, "what are all these people nid-nodding at in such an uncommon manner?" and great numbers assembled to see them, with a tumultuous noise. The raja, however, quickly mounted his elephant, and went out to them, followed by all his great men, and perceived that they were the same whom he had seen in his dream, and mentioned it to the bandahara and chief men.

When the crew had finished their devotions, the raja made his elephant sit down, and took up the Makhdum upon his own elephant, and carried him to the city ; and the bandahara, with all the chief men, adopted Islam, and their example was followed by the rest of the people, at the order of the raja, and the Makhdum was their  guru, and he conferred on the raja the name of Sultan Muhammed Shah.

The bandahara procured the name of Sri Wa Raja, that is, raja's father's elder brother, and is considered as almost the same degree of relationship as father. He was the first bandahara of Malaca, and Radin Anum was the person appointed Pradhana Mantri, with the title of Sri Amar di Raja. Tun Parpatih Resar, also assuming the title of Sri Naradi Raja, became Pangulu Randahari, who was the son of Tun Parpatih Tulos Parmuka Rerjaja, the former bandahara  of Singhapura, who was the son of Sri Tri-buana, and originally named Raja Kichil Muda. This Tun Parpatih Besar married the daughter of the bandahara, by whom he had a daughter, named Tun Rana Sandari.

Sultan Muhammed Shah again established in order the throne of his sovereignty. He was the first who prohibited the wearing of yellow clothes, in public, not even a handkerchief of that colour, nor curtains, nor hangings, nor large pillow-cases, nor coverlets, nor any envelope of any bundle, nor the cloth lining of a house, excepting only the waist cloth, the coat and the turban. He also prohibited the constructing of houses with abutments, or smaller houses connected with them; also suspended pillars or timbers, (tiang gantong,) nor timbers, the tops of which project above the roofs, and also summer houses. He also prohibited the ornamenting of creeses with gold, and the wearing anklets of gold, and the wearing the koronchong, or hollow brace-lets of gold, ornamented with silver. None of these prohibited articles did he permit to be worn by a person, however rich he might  be, unless by his particular licence, a privilege which the raja has ever since possessed. He also forbade any one to enter the palace, unless wearing a cloth petticoat of decent length, with his creese in front; and a shoulder-cloth; and no person  was permitted to enter unless in this array,  and if any one wore his creese behind him, it was incumbent on the porter of the  gate to seize it.

Such is the order of former time, respecting prohibition by the Malayu rajas, and whatever is contrary to this is a transgression against the raja, and ought  to incur a fine of five cati. The white umbrella, which is superior to the yellow one, because it is seen conspicuous at a greater distance, was also confined to the raja's person, while the yellow umbrella was confined to his family. Also, whenever the raja came out into his hall of state, he was ordered to be attended by the bandahara, the pangulu bandahari, the tamangung, and all the mantris and chiefs, and all the seda-sidas who were to sit in the sri-balei, or interior of the hall, while all the persons of the  royal family were to sit in the left hand gallery, and all the persons of Khettriga extraction in the right gallery, and the young seda-sidas were to sit without the galleries, while all the bantaras and the young hulubalangs, or champions, should stand beneath these with their swords on their shoulders.

The head bantara, whose office was to stand on the left hand, was to be the descendant of a mantri, and might become bandahara pangulu bandahari and tamangung, while the head bantara on the left,  was to be the descendant of a hulu-ba-lang,  or champion, and might become laksa mana and sri bija de raja; and all the hulubalangs were to sit in the side galleries; and whoever has the title of sangsta may succeed to the rank of sri bija de raja; and whoever bears the title of sangcuan may succeed to the rank of lacsamana ; and whoever has the title of tun pacarma may succeed to the rank of bandahara.

When any representation is to be made, this is the office of  the head bantaras, who are four or five persons, and it is their office in preference to all the seda-sidas, who sit in the hall of audience, excepting all the chief mantris. The select nakhodas, or sea-captains were also permitted to sit in the sri balei, or hall of audience; and all the sons of nobles who had no particular occupation, were to sit in the side galleries.

The raja's apparatus, such as his spitting-pot, his water-pitcher, his fan, and other utensils, were to be placed in the side-galleries; but his betel box and sword were to be placed by his side on the right or left hand, and his sword of authority was to be borne by the lacsamana, or Sri Bija Diraja.

Whenever an ambassador came or took his departure, the raja's slaves were to bring them out of the palace, and deliver them to the head bantara, who was to set them before the bandahara. The salver, with a yellow shoulder cloth, was to be given to the person who brought the letter. If at any time a letter was brought from Pasei or Haru, the ambassador was ordered to be met with all the regal apparatus, drums, flutes, trumpets, nagarets, with two white umbrellas carried close together, but the bugles were not to accompany them.

Also the mantris were to go mounted on elephants' necks, and the bantaras and seda-sidas mounted on the elephants' hinder parts, while the letter was to be carried by the chief of the little baduandas, (servants whose business is to run at the side of the elephant, opposite the howder,) for the rajas of both the aforesaid countries are to be considered as of equal rank with the raja of Malaca, and whether old or young, to be saluted in the same manner. When the embassy reaches the hall of audience, the letter was to be received by a hulubalang of high descent, and the king's answer was to be returned to the ambassador by the head bantaras, on the right and on the left. If a letter arrived from any other state, it was received with less ceremony, that is, only with drum, flute, and a yellow umbrella, and as might be required, either mounted on an elephant, or on horseback ; but it was necessary to alight at the outer gate. If the raja was of considerable consequence, the  bearer of his epistle was received with trumpets and umbrellas, one white and one yellow, as he alighted from the elephant at the outer gate.

Formerly there were seven gates to be passed in entering to the raja. When the embassador was to take his departure, it was the settled custom to present him with an honorary dress; and this was even to be extended to the ambassador of Racan. If our ambassador should carry a letter to another state, it is proper that he should be presented with an honorary dress. 

It was also ordered that when any title was to be conferred, that the raja should appear in the Balei Rung, or great hall of audience, attended with a great concourse of people, seated according to order ; and that then the person to be honoured with the title should be called; if a great man, (parsarani,) by a man of consequence ; if a masterman,  (pertuanan,) by a man of middle rank (orang sadang); if rather a man of inferior rank, (persangan,) by a mean man. If the person to be honoured was of that dignity to require an elephant, he was to be brought upon an elephant; if a horse, on a horse ; and if he was not of sufficient rank either for a horse or an elephant, he was to be brought on foot with drum, and flute, and umbrella. Umbrellas are of different kinds, as green, blue, or red ; the highest ranks requiring the yellow and white umbrella ; the yellow umbrella being that which pertains to the descendants of princes and chief men ; the brown, the red, and green umbrellas belonging to the seda-sidas,  bantaras and hulubalangs in general; but the dark blue umbrella is appropriated to the candidates for honours.

When the candidate  is conducted to the hall of audience, he is to wait without, while the hereditary minstrels, or descendants of Bat'h, shall recite the king's titles from the cherei, according to the regular formulary. After reciting the cherei, the bard goes out with it, to introduce the person to be honoured, who is delivered to him by his elder and younger brothers, with his race and family. Then the bard is to take his tetampan, or shoulder-cloth, and place it on the shoulder of the candidate, and to conduct him into the raja's presence, and to spread a mat for him wherever the raja pleases, and seat him upon it.

Then an honorary dress is brought in; if for a bandahara, of five pieces, placed in five platters, a coat, a cloth, a turban, a plaid, and a waist-band; if a raja-raja's son, or that of a chief mantri, or a chatreya, of four pieces, on four platters, the waistband being wanting ; if a bantara, seda-sida, or hulubalang, it is to consist of three pieces, on three platters, a cloth, a coat, and a turban. After this comes the gradation, when the dress is presented on one platter, and after that, when it is given into the naked hand without any platter, and placed on the neck in the presence of the raja, and carried away.

The same rules were to be observed in presenting the honorary dress to ambassadors. After receiving the dress, the persons were to retire to dress themselves, and having dressed themselves, they were to return. They were then permitted to assume the petam, or bracelet, and the ponto, or armlet. These persons, so distinguished, are to wear the armlet, varying, however, according to their station. Some wear the ponto in the form  of a snake in its den, with an amulet. Others wear the ponto set with gems; others wear a simple armlet of metal; some wear it in the form of a blue ring ; some wear the ponto of silver ; some wear it on both sides ; others only on one side. 
After having saluted the raja in this manner, they are then to return home, and are to be attended home in state, according as may be proper for them ; and also by the person who summoned him, and with music. Some are only to be accompanied with the gandang or drum, and saronei or flute; others must also have the trumpet; others the nagarets  and some must have the white umbrella; but this, and the nagara, is a very high honour.  Even the trumpet and yellow umbrella were of difficult attainment in former times.

Whenever the raja was to go abroad on a great  day in an usungan or palankeen, it was incumbent on the pangulu bandahari to lay hold of the front of the palankeen on the right, and for the Tumargungs to lay hold of it on the left, while two mantris were to lay hold of it behind. The laksamana and sri bija di raja were to take hold of the chain which is at the foot of the raja, one on each side, while the bantaras and hulubalangs were to go on before him in succession, according to the offices which they bore, for all the insignia of royalty were to be borne before the raja, by those who preceded him; the lances of royalty, one on the right, and the other on the left, and all the bantaras were to carry the sword on the shoulder, before the spearmen.

The jongan or royal casket was also to be carried before the king, and he was to be preceded by every species of music, as the gong, the gandang, or drum, and other instruments; the nagarets on the right, and on the left the trumpets. While on procession, the greater part were to be on the right hand, and while halting the greater part should be on the left hand. The same order was to be observed with regard to the nobats, or large kettle-drums. In the procession before the raja, the meaner persons were to go first. First of all the pawei, bearing the naked lance, and then the whole musicians with their instruments of every kind.

The bandahara was to go behind the raja, accompanied by the cazis. If the raja mounted his elephant, it was the office of the tamangung to mount the elephant's head, and that of the laksamana or sri bija di raja to ride behind, carrying on their shoulder the sword of authority. When the nobats are present, the men of consequence shall sit on the left side of them, and the common persons on the right. The royal betel box also accompanies the nobut. The order of sitting was to be, first the descendants of the royal family, then the bandahara, then the pangulu bandahari, the tamangung, the four mantris, the cazis, and the persons skilled in law, the laksamana, the sri bija di raja, the aged seda-sidas, and then whoever the raja pleased, and the chatriya. If the bandahara be present, the nobat should be present, and if he be not present, the betel-box should not be present.

On any great festival, within the palace, the pangulu  bandahari, was to take the direction of the interior, order the mats to be spread, cause the hall of audience to be adorned, and the wall hangings and cloth roof to be suspended, to superintend the table, and issue instructions to the people, summon those who were required, for the whole of the raja's slaves and bandaharis, and collectors of the revenue of the country, and the Shahbandar are all of them under the charge of the head bandahari. The  pangulu bandahari shall summon the people of the raja, and the tamangung shall arrange them in the eating hall, four and four at every hidangan or table, down to the  lowest in the same manner. If, how-ever at one hidangan, there should only be three persons, the food of three persons is to be placed on it; if there be only two, to place victuals for two, if there be only one, to place the victuals for one: also to take care, that those who ought to sit below, do not go up too high ; and in like manner with regard to those who ought to sit in a high place, that they do not go below. The bandahara was also to eat with the royal family.

Such were the established usages during the time of the kingdom of Malaca; and there were many more of a similar sort, which, if they were all to be mentioned, would prove tedious for the hearer. In the month of Ramzan, on the night of the 27th, the raja shall go in procession to the mosque, and while it is still light, a feast shall be prepared at the mosque, and the tamangung shall proceed on the neck of the elephant,  with all the royal insignia before, and the drums beating, which shall continue till the arrival of the raja at night, in procession, according to the usage of festival days ; and having finished his devotions in a devout manner, he shall then return.

The day after, the laksamana shall bring him a diadem in great state, for it is the custom of the Malay rajas to go in procession to the mosque, arrayed in a diadem and frock vest, and this dress is prohibited at marriage ceremonies, without the raja's particular permission, when a person may wear it in like manner the Kling dress is not permitted to be worn at marriages, unless it is a person's usual dress, when he may be permitted to wear it at marriage ceremonies, or solemn prayer.

On the greater and lesser festival days, the bandahara and all the great men shall enter into the raja's inclosure in a mass, arid the pangulu bandahari shall bring the usungan, or conveyances; and as soon as they shall see the conveyances, all the persons who are in the interior hall shall quickly descend in regular order; and the drums and nobats shall be beat in the seven ragans or modes, and after every ragan the trumpets shall sound; and when the seventh time is accomplished, the raja shall mount his elephant within, and shall proceed to the Istaca (or exterior dome, where the throne is placed,) and mount the Istaca, in order that every one may see the raja. Then every one shall sit down on the ground, except the bandahara, who shall go up to him and conduct him to his usungan, or state palankeen, which the raja shall mount and proceed to the mosque, according as has been already mentioned.

Such are the institutions of the Malay rajas of the older time; and in reciting them I followed entirely the ancient  authority as I have received them; and if any one is better acquainted with the history, I hope he will correct my errors, and not throw the blame upon me. The relater states, that Sultan Muhammed Shah long continued to exercise his authority, and was extremely just and the protector of all his vassals.
For a long period the country of Malaca continued to flourish, and its domains to encrease constantly, so that on the west its boundaries extended to Bruwas Ujung-carang; and on the east as far as Tringano. It also became noted in every country, that the country of Malaca was very great, populous, and abundant in all the necessaries of life; and that its rajas were descended from  the race of Secander Zulkarneini, and sprung from Nasharwan Adil, the raja of the east and west.

All rajas came to Malaca to be introduced to Sultan Muhammed Shah, who received them all with the highest respect, and invested them with honorary dresses of the highest value. All the merchants likewise, whether from above or under the wind, frequented Malaca, which in those days was extremely crowded ; and all the Arabs gave it the name of Malakat, or the mart for collecting all merchants; for many different races of merchants frequented it, and all its great men were extremely just in all their proceedings.