An English translation of "Sejarah Melayu" by Dr John Leyden with an introduction by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. This book was published in 1821.
The Sejarah Melayu (or Malay Annals), is a Malay literary work believed to have been commissioned by a Regent of Johor in 1612.
As you cannot acquire perfectly the language of all us
Malays here, in like we shall never be able to acquire your language truly.
Then Mokhdim Sader Jehan was angry, and said, "I renounce teaching Tun
Mia, the hairy caterpillar."
It happened on a time, that Sultan Mahmud wished to send to
Pasei, to enquire concerning topics of discussion started between the learned
of Mecca, and those of Khorasan and Irak; and he consulted with the bandahara,
and the other great men. "If we write letters," said he, "we will
have the worst of it, for it is the custom of Pasei to read differently from
the writing, and if a person writes compliments, they read homage." Then
said the bandahara, "the best thing to be done is first to write it, and
then let the ambassador get it by heart." "Very proper advice,"
said the Prince, " and we shall send that gentle, Tun Mohammed, on the
Tun Mohammed accepted it, and when all was finished, he took
as a present a dagger of Pahang workmanship, set with gold and gems, a white cocatoo,
and a brown cocatoo. When Tun Mohammed had arrived and saluted the Prince, the
Pasei men asked, "where was the letter." " I am the letter, let
me have the music." Then Tun Mohammed mounted the elephant, and the music
attended him to the hall of audience, and he recited the letter aloud,
according to its purport. " May the wishes of prosperity from the paduca,
the elder brother, reach the paduca the younger brother, the sublime Sultan,
the elevated King of Kings."
After this greeting the paduca, the elder brother has sent
the noble Tun Mohammed and the mantri Sura Dewa, to the presence of the paduca,
the younger brother, to enquire concerning the following topics. "Verily
he who declares that God is the creator and preserver to eternity, is an infidel,"
and also, "Whoever says God is not the creator and preserver to eternity,
is an infidel ;" —and he requests his younger brother to give him an
explanation of these texts."
Then the raja of Pasei assembled all the panditas, and learned men in Pasei, but
not one of them could answer these queries. Then the Sultan of Pasei summoned
Tun Hasan, who immediately came, and said "Tun Hasan give a satisfactory
answer respecting these topics, that we may not be disgraced." Tun Hasan
replied, "In truth I am master of the subject, and if it please God, I
shall find it easy." He called Tun Mohammed near, and explained to him
what the Sultan wanted, and Tun Mohammed assented, and Tun Mohammed asked leave
of the raja of Pasei to take farewell;
and the raja of Pasei senta letter with him, and the mantri Sura Dewa, to
Malaca, accompanied with the present of a skean (sekian jenawi) with a barred
handle, and studded; a bow with two cases, and two quivers full of ar-rows; and
he presented the ambassador with rich honorary dresses.
After this, they set
sail and arrived in Malaca, and informed the Sultan of all that occurred, and
the Sultan was highly pleased. This noble Tun Mohammed was the son of Sri Amaru
Bangsa Tun Abu Seid, and was the grandson of the white bandahara, and the great
grandson of the bandahara Sura Raja.
It is related that the bandahara Sri Maha Raja had a
daughter who was extremely beautiful, and named Tun Fatimah. She was quite
devoid of fault, elegant in the highest degree, pleasant and sweet in her manner
as the sea of honey, bright as the full moon when brightest, and she generally
went dressed in forbidden vestments, and was all the handsomer. She was
betrothed to Tun Hasan, the Ternangung, who was no common man, elegant and
pleasant, so that it was impossible to mention a more suitable pair. He is the
person of whom the pantun runs
is it a-pickling with the bilimbing fruit, .
The garongang oysters which come up the river;
Who is it you are peeping at over the wall,
Who but Tun Hasan the Temangung the bandahara's son."
When Tun Fatima however was grown up, the bandahara changed
his purpose, and wanted to give her to Tun Ali, the son of Sri Nara di Raja,
and when he was to present the betel (a few days before marriage,) the bandahara invited the Raja di Baru, who
attended and saw Tun Fatimah, at whose beauty he was quite astonished, and her
form was a form of fairy (peri.)
He accordingly asked the bandahara, if the raja had ever
seen his daughter. The bandahara said, " Not yet, if the bandahara will
not be offended, I would talk to him a little." "Say on," said
the bandahara, " whatever you think
proper." The Raja di Baru, said, "This young lady is extremely
handsome, and it is not proper to marry her to an inferior person, I think you
should wait a little and let His Majesty have a sight of her, for at this
present there is no Queen of the country, for the Paramaisuri, or Princess of
Pahang was dead, and according to the custom of the Malay Rajas, whenever there
was no Queen, the daughter of the bandahara should become Queen." The
bandahara however replied, " one inferior man is fit for another inferior
person." The Raja di Baru said, "Well, the bandahara will follow his
own opinion, but being an aged man, I have only taken the liberty of representing
the matter to you."
Then the bandahara made preparations for the nuptials of Tun
Fatimah with Tun Ali When the time for celebrating the marriage arrived, the
Prince also went to the house of the bandahara, being invited to be present at
the giving away Tun Fatimah. When the Prince came and was seated, they brought
Tun Ali, who entered into the house, and the rice was brought for the bride and
bridegroom to eat, and the bandahara invited the raja to enter and be present
at the ceremony.
Here the raja first saw Tun Fatimah, and his heart was moved
at the view of her beauty; and he directly conceived enmity against the
bandahara Sri Maha Raja, and said in his heart, "Was it not bad-hearted in
Pa-Mutaher, not to shew me his daughter who is so very fine a woman. When the
ceremony of the young couple eating together was over, the raja returned to the
palace with his heart full of enmity against the bandahara, and constantly
busied himself in machinations against him. Tun Fatimah after her marriage with
Tun Ali, bore him a son named Tun Trang.
It is said that about this time a kelinger settled in
Malaca, and became Shahbender, or chief of the port, and he was named Raja
Mudeliar. He was very rich at this period, so that nobody in Malaca could be
compared to him. On a certain occasion he was sitting in the presence of the
bandahara, who said to him, "Raja Mudeliar, now tell me true, how much
gold are you worth?" "Your Honour," says Raja Mudeliar, "I
am not worth a great deal, all that I possess is about five behra." The
bandahara said, "if it is so, then I am just worth one behra more than
As for the bandahara, he was
constantly engaged in trade, and never
experienced any loss; and he would sometimes call the young children of the
family, when he was fond of them, saying, "My little lads, do you want to
see gold," and they would cry, "O, yes!" he would then desire
them to bring a chest, and they would all go and bring the chest, crowding
round it; and would bring it before the bandahara, when he would order them to
empty it upon the mat, and measure it by the gantang; and then he would direct
them to take each a handful, and go and play.
Then each of them would take
a handful, and would run off to play at the new house which the bandahara was
building, and there they would lay it at the foot of the doors and partitions,
while they diverted themselves; and when it was evening they would return home.
In the morning the workmen would come and find the money and take it. Then the
bandahara's grandchildren would recollect where they had left the money, and
come running to seek for it, and then
they would cry when they could not find it. The bandahara would ask "what
are all the boys crying about," and they would say, "they were crying
for the gold which they had lost, and which they had received from the
datuk." "Don't cry," he would say, "and you shall have some
more in its stead;" and then he would give each of them a handful again,
and then the boys would be quiet.
Also when his grandsons went
a hunting the wild buffalo or the deer, if they found no game, they would turn
off to the folds of the bandahara's buffaloes, and stab one or two, and cut
their throats, and bring a leg of them to the datuk bandahara. "What flesh
is this," would the datuk say? "Buffalo flesh," would the person
who brought it say, "for your grandsons went a hunting, and not finding
any game, they have gone and stabbed one of your buffaloes, and sent you one of
the haunches." "Are they not mischievous rogues, these boys?" would
he say, "have they not a constant trick of going to hunt my buffaloes,
when they can find no game?"
When his slaves, who lived
inland or along the shore, came to visit him, they would often appear in a
crimson doublet and silk turban; and the bandahara not recollecting them, would
say to them, "come up here, comrade, come up;" and then would he say,
"What is your Honour's name." Then would the comrade say, "As
for me, why I am the datuk's slave, and my name is so and so." "So
then you are so and so, since that is the case." "Yes, indeed, datuk,
would the other reply." Such was the characteristic behaviour of this bandahara, when he did not
know his own servants.
It happened on a certain gala day, that the bandahara and
all the chief men had seated themselves in the hall of audience, waiting for
the raja to make his appearance; when raja Mudeliar came, and wished to salute
the bandahara; but the datuk repulsed him with his hand, saying, "Fy on
this Keling, who does not understand the language of ceremony! Is it proper for
you, Sir, to salute on the raja's balei, or raised seat? If you wish to pay
your respects to me, can you not visit me at my own house? Besides, I have not
yet saluted His Majesty, and how then can
I touch any body's hand before that; and how fine that would be, in the
presence of all." Then Raja Mudeliar slunk away greatly ashamed.
There was a shopkeeper, who had long resided in Malaca, who
was very rich, and named Hi Menu Nayen. Whoever visits him on festivals, he
made them presents of cloths and gold, and rarities of different kinds, and he
was visited by all the sons of the great chiefs, and he made them presents of
rare cloths, and there was only Tun Hasan Temangung who did not visit him. One
day, Tun Hasan was sitting in a large party, and Hi Menu Nayen came, and
seating himself, and began to talk, saying "Gentle, all persons of
consequence come to visit me, save only Tun Hasan Temangung, and if he would
grant my request, he too would pay me a visit, and stop at my shop ; for truly
I would present him with ten tayel of gold to purchase betel." Tun Hasan,
the bandahara's son, replied, "Nayen! you base born slave! would you give
me an entertainment; it becomes not you, nor any of your fathers; I will have
none of it."
It was the custom of all the young gentlemen, when they
wanted money, to go and represent to the
bandahara, that the market place in their quarter of the town, was not placed
even, and had a great many shops irregularly projecting, and that it would be
proper to adjust it; for would not His Majesty be in a great passion if he
should pass by and see? "Well then," said Tun Hasan, "go all of
you with a surveyor, and make it all even by the chain." Then the young
gentlemen would go, and where they saw the houses of the richest merchants,
there would they extend their chain, and order the houses to be pulled down.
Then the merchants who were the proprietors of the ground, would offer them
money, some a hundred and some fifty, and some ten dollars. Such was the
practice of the young gentlemen, who would then go away with the surveyor, and
divide the money.
There was a Keling merchant, named Penia Sura, who was the
head of all the merchants in Malaca. This Penia Nina Sura Dewan had a cause
against the merchant Raja Mudeliar, and both the parties went to the bandahara
Sri Maha Raja, when it was almost evening. The bandahara desired them to come
tomorrow, and he would hear the cause; then both the parties returned home.
When it was dark, however, Nina Sura Dewan began to think Raja Mudeliar is a
man of great property; and if he should present money to the bandahara, most
assuredly he will gain his cause. It is best that I should anticipate him, and
go this very night to the bandahara.
He immediately took a bahra of gold, and went and presented
it to the bandahara, saying, "Here is some gold, which I present to Your
Honour for the purpose of providing your betel." "Nina Sura!"
says the bandahara, "you have presented me all this gold, but surely I
never asked it from you, however, I accept it as you have presented it;"
then Nina Sura returned.
Now there was a Kelinger named Kitul, who was of the family
of Nina Sura Dewan, who was indebted a cati of gold to Raja Mudeliar. That same
night he went to the house of Raja Mudeliar, where he found him diverting
himself with his daughter. "It is very fine," said Kitul, "for
you to be amusing yourself here with your daughter, but a misfortune awaits you
which you little think of." The heart of Raja Mudeliar trembled within
him, at hearing the speech of Kitul, and he seized his hands, and conducted him
into a chamber, saying " What is the news you have heard, pray let me
know." Kitul said, "this very night Nina Sura Dewan has been with the
bandahara, and has presented him with ten cati of gold, and he is to order you
to be put to death, and even at this instant the bandahara and Nina Sura are
concerting together concerning your destruction."
When Raja Mudeliar heard this, he immediately went and
brought Kitul's bill, and tore it to pieces, saying, "I give you up this
debt Kitul, and shall ever after regard you as my brother." Then Kitul
returned home, and the same night Raja Mudeliar took a bahra of gold, with gems
and rare cloths, and carried them to the laksamana Khwajeh Hasan, for at this
time all the laksamana's family were very intimate with Sultan Mahmud. Then
Raja Mudeliar presented himself to the laksamana, saying, " I come to
acquit myself of a fault, that men may not say that I have conspired along with
my headman, for I know that the bandahara intends treason against His Majesty,
and pray give him quickly information of the fact, for he has caused a throne
to be made for himself, with a golden chirei,
and golden slippers, and wishes to assume the sovereignty in the land of
He then presented to the laksamana all the gold and goods
which he had brought. When the laksa-mana saw all the gold displayed, his
understanding was captivated by wordly goods, as it is said in the traditions,
"O gold, you are not God, but yet you can accomplish whatever you
please." "Very well," said the laksamana, then let not Raja
Mudeliar be disconcerted, I will represent the matter to the raja." Then
Raja Mudeliar returned, and the laksamana entered to Sultan Mahmud, and told
him all that Raja Mudeliar had said. When the Prince had heard this, he
assented in his heart to the whole of it, for it was like a pillow to a drowsy
man, as he constantly retained in his mind a grudge against the bandahara, on
account of his daughter Tun Fatima.
He, therefore, directed Tun Sura di Raja, and Tun Indra
Sagara, to be summoned, and ordered them to slay the bandahara Sri Maha Raja,
and delivered them his own creese as a token from His Majesty. These two chiefs
proceeded from the palace to the house of the bandahara, accompanied by the
raja's slaves, and the bandahara's grandsons, with all his relations and
connections; as soon as they saw the party quickly assembled round the
bandahara, with all their warlike accoutrements and arms. As for Tun Hasan
Temangung, he wished to fight with his creese, but the bandahara stopped, and
would not suffer him, saying, "Stay Hasan, would you ruin the reputation
of an aged man like me, for it is not the Malay custom to attempt
When Tun Hasan the Temangung heard this, he threw away his
creese and folded his arms. The bandahara, in like manner, ordered every one of
his relations to throw down their arms, and they all returned in sorrow to
their several homes. Then the bandahara remained with his brother Sri Nara di
Raja, and his grandsons and nearest relatives, Then Tun Sura di Raja, and Tun
Indra Sagara entered, and brought the creese from the raja, and having placed
it on a silver platter, and covered it with a tetampan, they presented it to
Then Tun Sura di Raja said, "I present this token of
gratulation to the bandahara, as the power of fate has reached him."
"The bandahara, with Sri Nara di Raja replied, "Whatever God Almighty
ordains, must be accomplished; as for me, I am content, especially, as I have
committed no fault." Then the bandahara and Sri Nara di Raja called for
water for oblation. Then Tun Hasan Temangung took up the bandahara's chests,
filled with gold, to throw them into the sea. "Ha! Hasan," said the
bandahara, "why would you throw them into the sea. The Prince wishes to
put me to death, but it is not to plunder my gold. When I am dead let it be
carried to His Majesty, and presented to him from me, and do not throw it
Then the bandahara, Sri Nara di Raja, Tun Hasan Temangung,
and Tun Ali, the husband of Tun Fatimah, were all four put to death, by Tun
Sura di Raja, and Tun Indra Sagara. There was also a son of Sri Nara di Raja,
who received a blow with a sword from a Bengali, named Miasem, reaching from
the tip of his chin to the flap of his ear, or a little below. Tun Hamzah then
fell wounded on the ground. Then there came a messenger running from the
Prince, to forbid them from killing the whole family, but to leave some to keep
up the lineage. Then said Tun Sura to Tun Indra, "What resource have we
now, since we have killed the whole, and nothing but these little lads
remain." Indra Sagara said, "let us then preserve Inchi Hamzah, who
is wounded, and have him cured, he will gradually recover." Then Tun Sura
di Raja took Tun Hamzah and presented him to the Raja, who ordered him to be
attended by physicians and cured, and this was the person who was so much
beloved by the Prince about that time.
When the bandahara Sri Maha Raja was dead, the Prince took
Tun Fatimah, the wife of Tun Ali, to wife, and was very fond of her, and he
took possession of all the inheritance of the bandahara, among which he found
not one of the articles which the bandahara was said to have prepared, on which
he greatly regretted putting to death the bandahara without more investigation
than he had given to the subject. He also ordered his most enlightened mantris
to examine how the business had happened. They enquired of all the great men
concerning the matter, when it appeared that the perfidy had originated with
Kitul and Raja Mudeliar.
On this, the Prince ordered Raja Mudeliar to be put to
death, and his house and property to be plundered. As for Kitul, he ordered him
to be impaled horizontally, with his wives and children, and his house to be
dug up from the foundation, and thrown into the sea. He also ordered the
property of the laksamana,Khwjael Hasan, to be confiscated, for his impatience
in representing the matter so quickly to the raja. Indeed the raja would have
put him to death, had he not before sworn that he would not shed a drop of his
blood; besides there was a river, the waters of which were still necessary for
The Prince now wanted the datuk Paduca Tuan to be bandahara,
but he was now very old, all his teeth were gone, and his legs were grown lame,
so that he could only sit at the door, with a screen before him, and there he
had to eat, and also to do his necessary occasions. When people came to visit
him, the screen was removed, and when they went away, it was returned to its
place. As soon as he heard that he was going to be appointed bandahara by the
raja, he tumbled himself down beneath his couch, saying, "What sort of a
bandahara should I be in this guise? He therefore represented that he could not
possibly accept the office; the raja insisted, and whenever there was any
business of importance, he had him carried to the Balei Rung. He is the person
who is denominated the bandahara Luba Batu, (or of Stone-hole,) who had such a
numerous offspring, all of one stock, and of one father and mother. In his
lifetime, there were living, of his own descendants, to the number of seventy
When the bandahara Luba Batu was sitting with his
grand-children, he would say, "lads do you want a chew of betel" They
would answer, "if you please,
Datuk." "Come beat the betel for me," he would say, and they
would pound it, and give it to him and he would mumble it a little, and then
give it to his grandsons one by one. As for the bandahara Luba Batu, he had a
great appetite, and when he eat he would get his grand-children in the Balei
with him, and also give them to eat, and they would eat what he left; then they
would want kitchen stuff, and say, "salt is wanted." When the salt
was brought, they would spill it on the ground, and again ask salt, saying,
"why really there is no salt in our victuals."When they brought salt,
they would spill it by whole cupfulls on the ground. Then would the bandahara
Luba Batu call out, "Hallo! my grandsons have no kitchen stuff, why don't
you bring them some." Then kitchen stuff would be brought in anew, and
then they would be quiet.
Now the bandahara was himself such an eater that when he
went to visit the laksamana Hang Tuah, they would give him a pint of guntung or
boiled rice, and a chop-pin or chapa of milk and sugar. When he went to bathe
in the river, if there was a fruit tree inclining over the river, he would eat
up the whole of the fruit on its branches. Such an eater was the bandahara. If
he was going any where he would expend a pasu or cup of scented ointment, in
rubbing over his body. He had a son named Tun Kajit, of a harsh temper. If he
went to the marketplace, whatever he got his hand on that pleased him, he would
carry off without minding the right owner.
Whenever therefore he went out, the bandahara ordered a person
to follow him, and whenever he seized any thing, this person went and enquired
its price, and paid it. Such was the temper of Tun Kajit. The bandahara
presented him with an elephant, and after mounting it two or three times he
sold it. The bandahara ordered it to be got back, and two or three times the
same thing happened, on which he presented it to another of his sons.
When Tun Kajit saw this, he took it by force from him,
saying, "it is my elephant which my father gave me;" and he took it,
and in two or three days he sold it again. On this the bandahara was enraged,
and bound him, and was determined to banish him from Malaca, and was with great
difficulty prevented. After this however, he wounded one of the raja's
companions. The bandahara again bound him in a Chindei cloth, and conducted him
before His Majesty, desiring he might be put to death. The raja said, "
This is always the case with the bandahara, because he knows I am a cruel man;
here he has brought me his son to put to death." Then the raja released
him, and desired him to return with the bandahara. " Only observe how His
Majesty proceeds," said the bandahara. "Here have I ordered this son
to be put to death, and here he has let him go, and now the conduct of this
disgraceful son will only be the worse."
This bandahara had a son named Tun Khwajeh Ahmed, surnamed
Tun Vicrama, who begot Tun Isup Beracah, surnamed Paduca Tuan, who begot Tun
Kajit, who was surnamed Sri Maha Raja and became bandahara. This is he who is
denominated datuk Bandahara Jouher.
As for Tun Fatimah the daughter of the former bandahara, she
was greatly beloved by the raja, and became Queen of the land of Malaca, but
she always continued melancholy, and whenever she thought of her father she
became quite demented. As long as she lived with Sultan Mahmud, so far from
laughing, she did not even so much as smile a single time. By the same token,
when a person who loves, receives any thing from his beloved, he also loves
that thing which he receives from the beloved object; and in the same manner is
the mind affected with regard to hatred.
When Sultan Mahmud perceived the invincible melancholy of
Tun Fatimah, he was filled with deep remorse for the slaughter of the
bandahara, Sri Maha Raja; and in the torments of his mind, he caused his son to
be crowned-by the name of Sultan Ahmed, and retired into the interior above
Malaca, and resided at a place named Cayu-hara, with Sang Sura, who never
separated himself. It is related, that whenever Sultan Mahmud went to divert
himself at Tanjung Keling, or any place in the upward, Sang Sura always
attended him, and carried his betel box, a small bundle, and a writing case.
When Sultan Ahmed heard that Sultan Mahmud was wont in this manner to go and amuse himself, he ordered the great
men to go and attend him. But when Sultan Mahmud Shah observed a number of
people approaching, he put his horse to its speed, and went off, not wishing to
be accompanied by many people. Sang Sura also followed him as fast as possible,
filling up the marks of the horses' hoofs, in order that they might not be
observed. Such were the habits of Sultan Mahmud, after his dereliction of the
As for the character of Sultan Ahmed, he had no affection
for the champions or great men, unless for Tun Haru, Tun Mea, the hairy
caterpillar, and Tun Muhammed, and the young men, and the raja's servants, who
were the companions of his amusements. As for Tun Fatimah, the wife of Sultan
Mahmud, as often as she was pregnant, she caused abortion. Sultan Mahmud asked
her, "Why she constantly caused miscarriage? Was it that she did not wish
to have a child by him?" Tun Fatimah said, "What have I to do with a
child, to add to my trouble; for even when I am only a single person, never is
my heart glad." According to one account however, Tun Fatimah bore two
daughters to Sultan Mahmud.
At this time, Sultan Mahmud constantly studied safyism under
Mukhdam Sader Jihan.
The grand vizier of Goa, Alphonso Al-buquerco, after
resigning his viziership, proceeded to Portugal, where he requested an armada.
The King of Portugal gave him four great ships, five large caracks, four
galleons, and Alphonso Albuquerco returned to Goa, where he again fitted out
three ships, eight galleasses and four galleons, and four fasta, in all being
forty-three sail, and proceeded to Malaca.
When he reached Malaca, all the Malaca men were greatly
alarmed at the sight of so numerous a fleet approaching the port, and they gave
information to Sultan Ahmed, that a very numerous fleet was entering the
harbour of Malaca. Sultan Ahmed quickly collected all his champions and
subjects, and prepared for war. When they were all prepared, the Malaca men
came forth, and the Frangis from their ships began to cannonnade, and balls
fell like a thick falling shower of rain, and the sound of their cannon was
like the thunder of Heaven, and the sound of their muskets like the rattling of
dried pease, and the Malaca men could not maintain themselves on the sea-shore,
on account of the severe shower of balls that rained on them. Then all the
fleet of Malaca retreated, and as soon as the enemy observed their retreat, all
the galleons and the fasta and galleasses made for the shore, and the enemy
landed. As soon as the Malaca men saw this, they advanced to engage them in a
great mass, and the sound of the weapons
of the two hosts was like the day of judgment.
Sultan Ahmed mounted his elephant, Jinaia, and marched out
with Sri Audana, on the neck of the elephant, and Tun Ali on the croup. The
Prince also carried Mukhdum with him, on the howder, for Mukhdam was the
Prince's guru. The raja advanced towards the quay, attended with a strong band
of champions, and set upon the Frangis, who were very numerous, and the Frangis were broken, and were furiously
amoked by the Malaca men till they fell back on the seashore, and retreated to
their ships. As soon as they reached their ships, they rained away with their
cannon like thunder-bolts, whizzing from the sky, and Sultan Ahmed moved a little
way back from the quay, and multitudes run searching for a place to shelter
themselves from the bullets.
Then said Mukhdum to the Prince, "Sultan, this is
noplace for the enjoyment of the divine union, let us return,"and he laid
hold of the stay ropes of the howder with both his hands. Then the Frangis shouted
from their prahus, "Haloo! you Malaca men, take notice, we will all of us
land tomorrow, by God, (Demi Devasa,) therefore keep a good lookout."
"Very well," said the Malaca men. That night he ordered a steady
watch to be kept by all the mantris and hulubalangs, in their arms and armour.
All the mantris and hulubalangs, and young nobles accordingly kept watch in the
public hall, and they began to say to each other, "What is the use of
sitting idly here? let us read a tale of war, which may be profitable to
Then said Tun Muhammed Unta, "That is very true; let us
therefore send Tun Indra Sagara to beg from the Prince the history of Muhammed
Hanefiah, which he has sometimes favoured us with, for the Frangis are to make
their attack tomorrow. Then Tun Indra Sagara entered to the Prince, and related
to him the request of the young warriors. Then the Prince gave the Hikayat
Hamdah, and said to Tun Indra Sagara, "Tell the young lads I will give
them the story of Muhammed Hanefiah, but I fear they will not be so courageous
as him, but if they will demean themselves like Hamdah, it will be very well.
Therefore I give them the story of Hamda.
Then Tun Indra Sagara brought out the
history of Hamda, and told them what the raja said. Then all the young men were
silent, till Tun Isup said to Tun Indra Sagara, "The raja has spoken
amiss, go back, and tell him, that he has only to desire the young lads to show
their valour like that of Benyar, since they wish to deprive us of out-own
country." Then Indra Sagara returned to represent this to His Majesty.
Then the Prince smiled: "it is very just, said he, that Tun Isup observes,
and he gave him the history of Muhammed Hanefiah.
When the day was lighted, the Frangis landed thousands on
thousands, with their whole host and weapons of war. Sultan Muhammed quickly
collected his hulubalangs, and marched out to encounter the Frangis. The Prince
mounted the elephant named Juru Damang, with Sri Audana on the neck of the
elephant, and Tun Ali on the croup. The two armies met, and the battle began,
the Malaca men closing up stoutly, playing their creeses and spears, and the
Frangis again fell back. When Alfonso de Albuquerco perceived his men giving
way, he quickly supported them with a thousand soldiers with their musquetry, and
set upon the Malaca men, and the sound of the musquetry was like thunder, and
their balls fell like pease on a sieve (bidi). This was a severe attack, and
the whole array of the Malaca men was broken, and all the champions of the
Prince gave way, and the Prince stood all alone on his elephant.
As soon as Alphonso de Albuquerco saw the Prince left alone,
he enclosed him quickly round with soldiery, and the Prince singly contended with
a long lance, against all these Frangis, — curse them — and the Prince was
slightly wounded in the hand, and lifted up his hand which was wounded,
and cried, "You race of the Malays,
are you not all ashamed to see me wounded here, take courage and stand by
me." When the champions who had fled, heard this, they all returned, and
again made a furious onset, and amoked the Frangis with their whole soul. When
Tun Saleh saw the blood of the raja's wound, he plunged singly into the Frangis
host, pushing them vigorously with his lance; but they run him through the
breast with a spear, and he fell dead. This day, in the amok attack on the
Frangis, five-and-twenty chosen hulubalangs perished, and Sri Audana was also wounded
through the groin, being pierced with a long lance. Then they made the raja's
elephant kneel down, and the Prince descending, returned to his palace, whither
they also conveyed Sri Audana; and the raja ordered his physician to attend
him, and he examined the wound, with the sharp point of a betel-leaf, and said,
that it was of no consequence, and would easily be cured, though if the weapon
had penetrated a barley-corn farther, he had been a dead man.
By this time the Frangis had approached the exterior hall of
the Prince's palace, and all the Malaca men were flying. The Prince saw that
all had fled, and then Sultan Ahmed himself had recourse to flight, and the
bandahara, who was lame, was seized on by Si Sa-la-mat, and compelled to fly.
Then the Frangis entered the fortress, and they saw that there was nobody in
the fortress, and then they continued the pursuit. Then said the lame bandahara
to Sa-la-mat, "Bear up, and bring me up with these accursed Frangis, that I
may amok with them;" but his family would not permit him. He said "Fy,
cowards I what a pity it is that I am lame. Were it not so, I would certainly
die on Malaca ground; but now I see that all the young lads of the present day
are not in the least sensible of shame, and in a crisis like this, there is not
one of them to devote himself and amok."
Than Sultan Ahmed retreated up to Moar, a place above, named
Pagoh. As for Sultan Mahmud, he remained in Batu hampar, (spread stones,) and
he founded a fort at Bentayen. In a short time, the Frangis appeared before
Pagar, and prepared to attack it. In a few days Sang Satia died, and Pagoh was
taken, and Sultan Ahmed made his retreat, and went up the river to Panarigan.
The lame bandahara died, and was buried at Lubu Batu, (the stone-plumbs,) which
is generally termed Bender-Lubu-batu. After this, Sultan Ahmed, with Sultan Mahmud, retired to Pahang,
and Sultan Abdal Jamil received them
with great kindness, and conducted him into the city, with a thousand testimonies
of respect and honour.
Sultan Mahmud gave his daughter, who was born of the
Princess of Calantan, in marriage to the raja of Pahang, named Sultan Mansur
Shah. Without remaining long in Pahang, he proceeded to Bentan, and Sultan
Ahmed founded a city at Kopeh. This Sultan Ahmed was extremely proper in all
his conduct, and kind to all his subjects. In one respect, however, he was not
good, that he had no affection for his mantris and hulubalangs and great men,
and was greatly attached to all the young lads, and his personal servants, and
all his people eat and drank pleasantly, feasting on rice with turmeric, and
roasfowls, all of them.
Then the great men all came to wait on Sultan Ahmed, and
they were hooted by all the young lads, saying, "Where are the fragments
and leaving of our rice prepared with turmeric, and our roasted fowls, with the
picked bones, to give to those old people, who are come from abroad, for such
is the raja's wish?" Sultan Mahmud heard of these proceedings, and was
displeased at it, and by the power of God Almighty, the heart of Sultan Mahmud was expanded, and he sent a
hulubalang, who killed him privately, so that few persons were acquainted with
it, and the proceeding of the person respecting Sultan Ahmed was left in darkness.
Thus died Sultan Ahmed, and was buried at Bukit-batu, (stone-hill,) and he is
therefore called Merhum Bukit Batu, the deceased of the stone-hill.
After the death of Sultan Ahmed, Sultan Mahmud placed on the
throne his son, raja Mudhafer, to reign in his stead, and ordered him to be put
under the tuition of a learned man, named Sham Selim, along with the sons of
many other nobles. When Raja Mudhafer grew up, he married Tun Trang, the daughter
of Tun Fatima, and begot a son, named Raja
Mansur. The laksamana Khwajeh Hasan died with grief, and was buried at
Gunung-pantei, (shore-hill,) and Hang Nadim succeeded him in the office of
laksamana, who became so famous in war for fighting, till the earth was
drenched in blood.
This Hang Nadim was two descents from the laksamana Hang
Tuah, and the bandahara Lubu Batu was also two descents from the same hero. Tun
Fatimah, the Queen of Sultan Mahmud, bore a son, who was named Ala-eddin Gheyas
Shah; who was commonly denominated Sultan Muda. Sultan Mudhafer, the sovereign,
married Tun Trang, the daughter of Tun Fatimah, and he had also by Tun Ali, a
son, named Raja Mansur.
After the death of Sultan Ahmed, all the young nobles and
the King's servants were assembled by Sultan Mahmud, and said to them, "Do
not be concerned about your situation, it shall be continued precisely as under
Si Ahmed." They replied, "We will submit to the authority of Your
Majesty, as we formerly submitted to that of your son, and we now all return to
All of them submitted themselves in this manner, except Tun
Ali, who refused to pay allegiance to him, and whatever in-stance the Sultan
made to satisfy him, he still refused, saying, "I never wish to look another
raja in the face after that of His Majesty, your son, for His Majesty died not
of disease, nor in war, but only by foul treason. Therefore, I request that
Your Majesty would throw me where he lies; for what purpose do I survive?"
By how many means did Sultan Ahmed endeavour to allure him, presenting him with
gold and silver, and how many dresses! but not one of them would he receive, desiring
only that the Prince would put him to death, which was at last done by Sultan