An English translation of "Sejarah Melayu" by Dr John Leyden with an introduction by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. This book was published in 1821.
The Sejarah Melayu (or Malay Annals), is a Malay literary work believed to have been commissioned by a Regent of Johor in 1612.
IT is related that the raja of Legor, named Maha Raja Dewa
Sura, was ordered by the raja of Siam to attack Pahang. He advanced with a host
conjectured to amount to two coti, and his approach was announced to the raja
of Pahang. Sultan Abdal Jamil collected his subjects, and strengthened the
fortress, and repaired all the implements of war. The news of this invasion
reached Malaca, and Sultan Mahmud called the bandahara Sri Maha Raja with
allthe mantris to a council to advise
concerning the affairs of Pahang, which was going to be attacked by the raja of
Sri Nara di Raja said, "Sire, in my opinion it is
proper to send and succour Pahang, for whatever befalls it, it is only Your Majesty's
name which will be brought in question." "Very true," said the
Prince, "and therefore it will be advisable that the bandahara should
proceed thither with all the champions." "Very well," said the
bandahara, who immediately prepared, and took his departure with Sang Saten,
Sang Naya, and Sang Guna, and Tun Viajit, and Sang Jaya Pacrama, and the prahus
were numerous as a float of timber, and could not be numbered.
At this time the subjects of the city of Malaca alone,
besides those of the coast and villages, amounted to ninety lac. The bandahara
proceeded to Batu Pahat, where he met the laksamana coming from the river Raya,
which was under the laksamana, according to the custom of that time. At this
time the fleet of Sangay Raja amounted to forty prahus, besides lancharangs of
three masts. Then the laksamana, Khwajet Hasan, came to meet the bandahara. The
bandahara said to him, "Gentle, come let us proceed to Pahang. I have not
yet received His Majesty's orders," said the laksamana. "But I
have," said the bandahara. "Neither have I yet paid my respects to
His Majesty," said the laksamana. "But I have," said the bandahara,"
therefore let us join hands on the subject." The laksamana had nothing
more to object, and therefore proceeded with the bandahara Sri Maha Raja.
When they reached Pahang, they found the half of the fort
remaining unfinished, with the vestigesof recent fire on it. This circumstance is alluded to in the following
fort of Pahang is consumed with fire,
Between Jati and Cabantayan
I do not prevent you from marrying another,
But that is not the agreement between us."
Then the bandahara went and presented himself before the
Sultan of Pahang, who washighly
gratified at receiving this assistance from Malaca. "Our fort is not yet
finished," said the raja, "but it will now be completed by your
assistance." "Very well," said the bandahara, and he ordered the
Malaca men to exert themselves in constructing the fortifications; and he ordered
the laksmana to superintend their operations. He set immediately about the work
with great good-will, and exerted himself so much that the people were wont to say,
"that the laksamana wrought with his hand, with his foot, and also with
his mouth," and in the space of three days the fort was completed.
The raja of Legor soon advanced with all his host, which was
innumerable, and commenced the war in a manner which cannot be described; and
the soldiers of Legor died like hens of the pip (sempar). The men of Malaca and
Pahang attacked them, and they gave way, and were broke and completely
Maha Raja Dewa Sura fled to the uplands of Pahang, and
proceeding straightly by land to Calantan, he returned to Legor. Then the raja
of Pahang gave an honorary dress to the bandahara Sri Maha Raja, who took his
leave and returned to Malaca. When Sultan Mahmud learned thatPahang had not been conquered he wasgreatly pleased, and he also conferred honorary
dresses on those who had distinguished themselves according to their rank.
There was a mantri of Sultan Mahmud, named Tun Parapati the
Black, deriving his origin from Tun Janu Bugu Dendany, (the crow). He had a son
named Tun Hasan, who was very handsome, and who used to say, "that if
anybody affronted his father, he would run amok." Now it happened that Tun
Parapati the Black had a very sharp altercation with a merchant, who complained
to the bandahara. The laksamana was present at the hearing, for it was the
ancient custom of Malaca, that when the bandahara investigated a cause, the
laksamana and temangung should not be separate from him, and if anybody offered
an affront to the bandahara, the laksamana put him to death; and if it was
proper to apprehend or fetter anybody, it was the temangung who was to
apprehend him. Such was the custom of ancient time.
When Tun Parapati was summoned by the bandahara, Tun Hasan
also came to find his father. When Tun Parapati saw him, thinking, perhaps, he
would not be as good as his word, he arose, and scraping the mat with his foot,
said, "Mantri, what sort of a thing is this, to examine people in this
manner?" The laksamana instantly unsheathed his sword, Leken; and said,
"Gentle, how dare you venture to scrape the mat before the
bandahara," and instantly he cut him down with a single blow, and Tun
Parapati immediately expired.
When Tun Hasan saw his father slain, he drew his creese. The
laksamana said, "Intend you treason, Tun Hasan;" the instant the
laksamana spoke, everybody fell upon Tun Hasan, and stabbed him; and though the
laksamana did all he could to prevent them, they would not listen to him from
the hubbub, and Tun Hasan also expired. Then the laksamana went in and related
the circumstances of the case, and the raja said, "It has happened
precisely as I could have wished, it is my order that the laksamana should cooperate
with the bandahara. Whoever affronts the bandahara affronts me, and it is
proper to slay him."
It is related that there is a country named Cota Meliyei,
the raja of which was a Moslem, and named Raja Suleeman. This country came to
be mentioned in Siam as a very fine country, but not subject to Siam. A son of
the King of Siam, named Chaw Sri Bangsa, proposed to go and reduce it, and
proceeded against it accordingly, with an innumerable host, like the leaves of
the trees; and when he reached Cota Meliyei, RajaSuleeman came out, and engaged Chaw Sri
Bangsa, man to man, and each of them mounted on his elephant.
Chaw Sri Bangsa declared, "That if he was victorious over
Raja Suleeman, he would assume the doctrine of Islam." So it happened
providentially, that Cota Meliyei was taken, and raja Suleeman slain; and all
his subjects reduced to subjection. Then Chaw Sri Bangsa adopted the Islam
faith, and he ordered all the astrologers to search out a place for founding a
Now there was a fisherman who followed his daily occupation,
and resided on the seashore; and who had a son named Tani, whence he was called
Pa tani (Tani's father). The astrologers, or Samis, agreed at last, that the
place where Patani resided, was a good situation for a city, and reported it to
Chaw Sri Bangsa, who ordered a city to be built on that spot, with walls and
fortifications, and that its name should be called Patani, after the name of
the fisherman; which name it retains to this day; according to the
pronunciation of the Arabs; however, it is named Fatani.
After this, Chaw Sri Bangsa sent Augunpal (O-khun-phun) to the
raja of Malaca, to request the nobuts to be granted him, as he had entered
Islam. O-khun-phun accordingly proceeded to Malaca, and was on an elephant, and
conducted to court, according to the practice of ancient time; and the letter
was read in the hall of audience, to the following purport. "May the
respectful homage of the son reach his father the Paduca Sri Sultan! the exalted!
the King of Kings! the sublime shadow of God in the world! Be it known, that
his son, the paduca, has sent O-khun-phun to his father's presence, to request
the nobuts from His Majesty, the Paduca, his father."
Sultan Mahmud was highly gratified by this letter, and presented
the nobuts with all their accoutrements, and presented O-khun-phun likewise with
an honorary dress, according to the ancient custom, and caused a letter to be
written to Chaw Sri Bangsa, in which he gave him the name of Sultan Ahmed Shah.
Then O-khun-phun returned to Patani, and presented the letter, and Sultan Ahmed
Shah of Patani assumed the nobuts accordingly.
After some time, the raja of Kedeh arrived at Malaca, and
wanted to request the nobuts also; and was seated by the Prince, above all the
chatriyas, while he made inquest regarding the raja of Kedeh. On a certain
occasion, the bandahara, Sri Maha Raja, sat in the hall with a numerous audience
of courtiers present, all the mantris attending; and among the rest the Temangung
Hasan. Meantime a repast was served up, and first the bandahara ate alone,
while the rest waited; for it was not the ancient custom for anybody to eat
with the bandahara; but after he had eaten, then they might eat. At this time
the raja of Kedeh arrived, and was immediately requested by the bandahara to
come up; and he came up accordingly, and seated himself along with Tun Hasan,
The bandahara had done eating, and the rest of the victuals
were set before Tun Hasan, the Temangung, and all the other mantris. Tun Hasan
said to the raja of Kedeh, "Come let us eat." "Very well,"
said the rajah of Kedeh. Said the bandahara, "Don't let the raja eat my
leavings." "No matter," said the rajah of Kedeh, for the
bandahara is an aged man, and I regard him as a father." Then the raja eat
of the leavings, along with Tun Hasan; after which, the betel-box was produced,
and they eat accordingly. After remaining some time in Malaca, the rajah of
Kedeh requested the nobuts of the Sultan, which were granted him, and he
returned to Kedeh.
At this time Malaca was in a very flourishing state, and the
general resort of merchants; from Ayer Leleh (the trickling stream) to the
entrance of the bay of Moar, was one uninterrupted market place. From the
Keling town, likewise, to the bay of Penajar, the buildings extended along the
shore, in an uninterrupted line. If a person sailed from Malaca to Jagra, there
was no occasion to carry fire with one, for wherever he stopped he would find
peoples' houses. On the eastern side likewise from Malaca, as far as Batu Pahat
(hewn-stone) there was the same uninterrupted succession of houses; and a great
many people dwelt along the shore; and the city of Malaca, without including
the exterior, contained nineteen lacsa of inhabitants (190,000.)
After some time there arrived a Frangi vessel from Goa, to
trade at Malaca, and observed that Malaca was a very fine and beautifulcountry, and well regulated. All thepeople of Malaca came crowding to see the appearance
of the Frangis, and they were greatly surprised as they had not been accustomed
to see the Frangi figure; and they said, "Why these are white
Bengalis;" and about every one of the Frangis the Malaca men were crowding
by tens to view them, twisting their beards, and clapping their heads, and
taking off their hats, and laying hold of their hands.
The capitan then went to the bandahara Sri Maha Raja, and
the bandahara adopted him as his son; and the capitan presented the bandahara with
two hundred chains of gold set with gems of extreme beauty, and Manilla workmanship,
and he threw it over the neck of the bandahara. The people present were going
to be in a passion with that Frangi, but the bandahara would not let them, saying
"Do not maltreat people who are ignorant of the language;" so kind
was he to them, and the capitan adopted the bandahara as his father.
When the monsoon arrived, the capitan returned to Goa, and
reported to the vizier the greatness of Malaca, and its great population. Now
the name of the great vizier was Alphonsus Albuquerco, and he began to covet it
eagerly, when he heard how fine a country Malaca was. He accordingly ordered a
fleet of seven ships and thirteen galleons to be fitted out; and he appointed
Gonsalvo Pereira to be captain-admiral to attack Malaca.
When they reached Malaca they began to fire away with their
cannon, and all the people of Malaca were frightened when they heard the sound
of their cannon, saying, "What sound is this like thunder?" And the
bullets came and struck the people who were on the land, andsome had their necks severed, and some had
their waists, and some their hands and their feet. The terror grew constantly
worse and worse, and they said, "What is the name of this weapon which is
so round? It is not sharp, yet will it kill."
On the morrow all the lads of Portugal landed with about two
thousand musketry, besides black men,and the Malaca men drew out their force, with Tun Hasan the Temangung at
their head, and met the Frangi army; and the noise of the fight roared and rung
on either side, with the sound of descending weapons, like a thick-falling
shower. Then when the onset began, Tun Hasan the Temangung, commenced the
attack according to the mode of amok, and beat back the Frangis, and their
corpses lay scattered as far as the shore of the sea, and they returned on
board their ships, and sailed away to Goa, where they related all the events of
the war of Malaca to the viziers of that country.
The great vizier was greatly enraged, for a great number of
men had perished, and yet they had not got possession of Malaca. Afresh he made
preparations to attack Malaca. Captain Mor, however declared, "It is my
opinion that while the bandahara Sri Maha Raja lives, however large the fleet
that attacks Malaca, it will not prove victorious." Alphonso Albuquerco
replied, "Why do you talk in such a strain. What resource is there while I
am not at liberty to quit Goa? But whenever I lay down the rank of vizier, I
myself will go and attack Malaca, and it shall be seen whether or not I shall
conquer it." But no preparations were made for another attack on Malaca, and
how many times ten years are supposed to have elapsed before the plan was resumed!