An English translation of "Sejarah Melayu" by Dr John Leyden with an introduction by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. This book was published in 1821.
The Sejarah Melayu (or Malay Annals), is a Malay literary work believed to have been commissioned by a Regent of Johor in 1612.
IT is related that Sultan Muhammed, the raja of Pahang died,
leaving three sons. The eldest was Sultan Abdal Jamil, the second Raja Muda
Parasura, and the youngest Raja Ahmed. Sultan Abdal Jamil succeeded his father,
and married the sister of Sultan Mahmud, who bore him a son named Raja Mansur,
who was extremely handsome.
At this period, Sri Amar Bangsu became bandahara of Pahang,
who had a daughter named Tun Tijaraan Bancal, who was extremely handsome in
form, so that no one could be compared to her in all Pahang. She was
excessively clever at opening pepper-pods with her teeth, and in this she was
so skilful, that she could always separate them into two equal parts without
ever tearing them awry. She was sought in marriage by Sultan Abdal Jamil, and
the bandahara her father had promised, and she was to be married as soon as the
monsoon set in.
Meantime the Sultan of Pahang sent Sri Wangsi di Raja to
Malaca, to bear the tidings and tokens of his father's death, together with a
letter. He arrived in Malaca, and was received according to the customs of the
olden time. The contents of the epistle were to the following import, "May
my liege, greeting, arrive under the feet of my suzerain lord, the Sultan of
Malaca, to announce to him, that my father has returned into God's mercy."
For seven days the Sultan ordered the nobuts not to sound.
Then the Sultan of Malaca sent Sri Dewa Raja to Pahang with a taper and
perfumes, and he also ordered Abdal Jamil to be crowned in his stead, and to
enjoy the nobuts. Then was Sultan Abdal Jamil extremely glad to hear the
contents of the letter, which run thus, "Salam and good wishes from the
younger brother to the elder. It is the will of God which has passed upon your
father, and what power of changing it have we? I have therefore sent a noble
person, Sri DewaRaja, along with Sri
Wangsi, to do honour to your coronation."
Then Sultan Abdal Jamil commenced his reign, and the
ceremony of his coronation lasted seven days and seven nights; after which, Sri
Dea Raja wished to return to Malaca, accompanied by Sri Wangsi; but Sultan
Abdal Jamil requested them to stop till he had gone an elephant-hunting, as a
great number of elephants had descended that season. Sri Dewa Raja persevered
in requesting permission to take his departure, alleging, that if the winds set
in, he would be a long time in his passage to Malaca, and incur the resentment
of the Sultan; though he admitted he was very desirous of seeing the elephant
Then Sri Dewa Raja asked, "If a tame elephant were loose,
could he be taken with the noose?" The Sultan said, "That he can,
whether wild or tame." On this, the other requested to see this operation;
and Sultan Abdal Jamil called one of his hunters, and ordered him to let loose
one of his tame elephants among two or three wild ones. After which they
attempted to noose the tame elephant by the foot, but they did notsucceed, and noosed one of the wild ones. They
then attempted to noose the tame elephant by the head, and again missed it, and
caught a wild one.
Sultan Abdal Jamil was greatly surprised, and called the old
head man, with about ten hunters more, but none of them could succeed; but
whenever they threw the noose, it struck another elephant. All the hunters,
however, were surprised at the ability displayed by Sri Dewa Raja, which
prevented the elephant from being caught. They came before the raja, and
announced, that none of them could catch it in the presence of Sri Dewa Raja.
Sultan Abdal Jamil was greatly ashamed of this incident, and returned to the
palace; while all of them went to their homes.
Next day, the raja ordered his elephant, Gompal, to be
brought, and caused him to be rubbed over with oil, till he became extremely
slippery. Now thiselephant was
extremely sloping in the haunches, so that only two persons could mount him at
once; and if a third mounted, he was sure to fall; and even two men would fall,
unless there was a howder. The raja having mounted this elephant, went to Sri
Dewa Raja, and said, "Where is your son? I wish to take him on the
elephant." Sri Dewa Raja said, "He is here,Sire," but he thought, in his heart, that
the raja only wanted to kill his son, by mounting him on so sloping an
elephant. The raja desired him to mount, and the elephant was again rubbed with
oil ; but Sri Dewa Raja called his son, saying, "Omar! Omar! come, the
raja wants to carry you on the elephant." Tun Omar quickly came to him,
and he whispered to him some instructions, which Tun Omar comprehended.
Then the raja made the elephant sit down, and Tun Omar
mounted, and seated himself on the rump, and they passed on to Ayer Itam, and
wherever there was a declivity, height, or hollow in the road, thither he
directed the elephant, in hope that the boy would fall; and whenever Tun Omar
was about to fall, he mounted directly the rump, and clung to it, as his father
had directed him; and whatever efforts the raja of Pahang made, the elephant
refused to proceed: and whenever he moved his fore-feet, he could not move his
hind ones. Tun Omar, when he reached better ground, then allowed it to proceed.
Again the elephant wished to take the rough ground; and three or four times, it
happened precisely as before. Sultan Abdal Jamil was greatly surprised, and returned
to the palace.
Then Sri Dewa Raja asked permission to return to Malaca; and
when he reached Malaca, he presented himself before Sultan Mahmud, who was highly
gratified to hear the proceedings of Sri Dewa Raja at Pahang. Then the Prince
enquired concerning the beauty and accomplishments of Tun Tiji, the daughter of
the bandahara of Pahang; and was answered, that at this period, she had no peer
in all Pahang. The Sultan's passion was excited, and he frequently mentioned
On a certain day, he said, "Who will go bring me the
maiden of Pahang? I will comply with all his wishes, even to the extent of the
half of the kingdom. If he has even slain a man, I will pardon him." Hang
Nadim heard from below what passed in his presence; and he thought with
himself, "Very well, I will go to Pahang, and if I succeed in bringing Tun
Tiji, the raja will excuse my fault." For the raja continued desperately
enraged at Hang Nadim, for his management in losing the bales, when he was sent
to the land of Keling. He therefore, having formed his plan, took his passage
directly for Pahang.
When he reached it, he met a man of Champa, named Seid Ahmed,
with whom he was extremely intimate. He enquired if it was true, that the Lady
Tun Tiji was so handsome; and said, that he wanted much to see her. "She
is very handsome, in truth," said the other," but she is betrothed to
the sovereign of Pahang. Why then should you wish to see her. Besides she is
the daughter of a very great man; and no man whatsoever can possibly see her;
nor is it possible for the sun and moon to approach her."Hang Nadim now
began to reflect by what device he should be able to get a sight of Tun Tiji.
One day, there passed by an old woman who sold perfumes, and
being called by Hang Nadim, she approached, and came into the house; and Hang
Nadim got perfumes from her. "Mother," says he, "whom do you belong
to, and where do you stay?" She said "I live with the datok
bandahara." Hang Nadim said, "Are you accustomed to frequent the
house of the bandahara?" The perfume woman said, "Yes, that I am; and
I am also in the habit of perfuming his daughter, the lady Tiji." Hang
Nadim said, "Is it true that Tun Tiji is so very handsome as she is
represented?" "Indeed she is a very fine figure, and has no match in
all the land of Pahang. I believe I have traversed the whole of it, and there
is none to compare to her.
She is however betrothed to the Prince, and is to be married
at the end of this season." "Can you keep a secret, mother?"
said Hang Nadim. "That I can, thank God," said the perfume woman;
"that is a thing I am quite used to."Hang Nadim was highly delighted
at what she said, and drew nearer to her; and how much gold did he not give
her; fine gowns, and whatever she pleased! The woman could not help coveting
these worldly goods, and she agreed to keep HangNadim's secret, and she desired him not to be
cast down upon the subject; to trust to her management. Hang Nadim said, "Mother,
I trust to you entirely, that you will enable me to deliver Tun Tiji to the
raja of Malaca;" and on this he gave her more gold.
She set out, and entered the enclosure of the bandahara,
saying, "Who wants to be perfumed now ?" As soon as Tun Tiji heard
her voice, she made her women call the perfume woman, and she entered into the
bandahara's house, and perfumed Tun Tiji; and as soon as she saw nobody
present, she said to Tun Tiji, "Heh! how sorry I am to see Your Ladyship's
charms and beautiful person thrown away! how sorry I am that you are going to
be married to this raja here. Were it to some great raja, how much better would
it be?" "Why," said Tun Tiji, "what raja is greater than
the raja of Pahang?" "What raja is greater; how can Your Ladyship ask
that; is not the raja of Malaca greater? Were you to marry the raja of Malaca,
that would be a thing just worthy of Your Ladyship." Tun Tiji was silent.
Besides, when the perfume woman went out to go to the bandahara's house. Hang
Nadim gave her an ointment to rub on the body of Tun Tiji, and she now took
care to employ it, and cajoled her at the same time, with soft and flattering
phrases; till Tun Tiji suffered herself to be wrought upon.
As soon as the perfume woman observed this, she told her;
"There is a servant of the raja of Malaca, here, named Hang Nadim, who has
been sent on purpose by the raja of Malaca, on your account privately; for if
he were to ask you openly, it is very uncertain if the raja of Pahang would
consent to resign you; and therefore he has sent privately. If Your Ladyship
would consent to go to Malaca, there is no doubt that the raja would marry you,
for he is not yet married, and then Your Ladyship would become queen of Malaca;
but if you marry the raja of Pahang, you can only become an inferior co-wife to
the queen. But if you marry the raja of Malaca, there is no doubt but the raja
of Pahang himself will have to do you homage at Malaca."Tun Tiji assented
to this old woman's cajoling speeches.
Now all the ancient and experienced people of former times, have
said, "Let never a young girl become intimate with an old one;" for,
as the Arabic verse runs, "Trust a lion to enter your fold, but trust not
an old woman to enter your house." When the perfume woman saw her
advantage, she pressed her the more strongly; and Tun Tiji said, "I fear
that this Hang Nadim will not carry me to Malaca, but marry me himself."
"How durst he venture to play such a trick?" said the tire woman,
"when he is dispatched on the business itself? Let me go and take his
solemn engagement however." On this, she went out to find Hang Nadim; and informed
him of all that had passed. Then said Hang Nadim,
Tiji, the gem of Bengal,
She who is skilful in splitting pepper pods;
If the lady does not give me credit,
Come let me swear on the word of God."
As soon as the perfume woman had heard the oath of Hang
Nadim, she returned to Tun Tiji and mentioned what he had said. "Since it
is so," answered Tun Tiji, "I consent." This information the old
woman forthwith communicated to Hang Nadim, who immediately went to find his
friend Seid Ahmed, the nakhodah, and said "he had a favour to ask."
"What is it that I would not grant to you," said the nakhodah, "even
if it were a matter of life and death, I would not fail."
Then Hang Nadim mentioned the agreement of Tun Tiji, and all
that had passed, and Seid Ahmed was glad to hear it. "Now if you would do
me a favour, clear your decks of the cajangs or sheds, and sail out, and wait
for me at the mouth of the river, till morning twilight, and when I reach you,
let us proceed to Malaca; and when you reach Malaca, I engage that you shall be
highly rewarded by the raja." "Very well," said the nakhodah,
and instantly ordered his people to stow away the cajangs, and be ready to set
sail at midday. He went down the river accordingly, and waited off the shallows
at the mouth.
Hang Nadim then desired the old woman to go and bribe the
keepers of the gates of the bandahara's house. The keepers were unable to
resist the gold, and when every body was fast asleep, towards morning, the
perfume woman conducted Tun Tiji down, and Hang Nadim stood ready below with a
prahu at the quay hard by, and he conveyed her instantly to the prahu, having
first wrapt up his hands in cloth. They descended the stream, and when they
came to the first bar, Hang Nadim threw sand into the water, and cried out to
open the bar, as they were going a fishing. The man in charge at the bar, said
to himself, "Oh, 'tis only a fishing boat," and in this manner they
passed the first bar; and so Hang Nadim got rid of all the bars, and passed out
into the bay, and joined the nakhodah, Seid Ahmed. Then they took Tun Tiji into
the vessel, and accommodated her in a close cajang cabin on the stern.
In the morning, when Tun Tiji's maids arose, they saw that
their mistress was not in bed, and they went and searched for her at the bath,
and in every other place, and then went to inform the bandahara that she was
not to be found. The bandahara ordered her to be sought for every where, but no
tidings of her could be found, and there was nothing but loud lamentation to be
heard in the house of the bandahara.
Then the bandahara
went to communicate the information to the raja, who was equally surprised, and
grieved at the intelligence. He ordered search to be made every where, but it
was all to no effect. At last a person came up from the bay, who reported that
he had met Hang Nadim early in the morning rowing out of the bay with a woman
veiled, and that he had carried her on board Seid Ahmed's vessel, just as he
was ready to set sail.
Sultan Abdal Jamil was in a terrible passion when he heard
this, and ordered ten swift penjajaps to be got ready, and he himself pushed
out to the bay to pursue Hang Nadim, and all the champions of Pahang
accompanied him with their prahus; and when they got out to Pulau Kian they
found Seid Ahmed ready to set sail.
Then the Pahang made a fierce attack on him, and poured on
him a sharp cross fire of balls. Then one of the prahus of the hulubalangs run
up to the jong of Seid Ahmed, and Hang Nadim pierced the man with an arrow, who
hooked the junk; he fell dead, and the grapple fell from his hand, and the
prahu fell back. Another immediately advanced, when the same thing took place,
and so on with two or three more, after which no other durst approach.
When Sultan Abdal Jamil saw all his champions fall back, he
ordered his own vessel to advance, and Hang Nadim as soon as he observed the
raja of Pahang, he immediately notched an arrow of the sort termed lusong, and
clove the knob of the raja's umbrella, and called out, "Ho! Pahangers,
observe my marking, if I take aim at you one by one, I will pierce each of you
through the eye-balls." The Pahangers were alarmed at this denunciation,
and the sight of his arrows in his hand, for Hang Nadim was a wonderous archer,
and could split any rod with his arrow, and when he aimed at a man armed with a
shield, he could smite sheer through the shield, and in the same manner with a
Then came on the prahu of Tun Aria, when Hang Nadim split
the mast right in twain, and again, he cut with his arrows all the bands which
fixed the oars. Tun Aria stood right by the main-mast, with a buckler in his
hand. Hang Nadim smote the buckler through, and wounded him slightly in the
Fortunately at this time there came a breeze of wind, and
Seid Ahmed raised his anchor, and set sail to Malaca, while the small prahus of
Pahang were compelled to return without success, not daring to follow the
vessel through the huge waves. Seid Ahmed, the nakhodah arrived at Malaca, and
intelligence was brought to the Sultan, that Hang Nadim had brought Tun Tiji,
the bandahara's daughter of Pahang.
The Sultan was highly delighted, and ordered her to be
brought in state to the palace, and Hang Nadim brought her ashore, that very
night, and conducted her into the presence. As soon as the Sultan saw Tun
Tiji's face, he exclaimed in Arabic, "God have mercy! how beautiful."
Then the Sultan bestowed manypraises on
Hang Nadim, and conferred on him an honorary dress complete, of the sort worn
by young Princes, and made him presents of gold, silver, and other valuables, beyond
To the nakhodah, Seid Ahmed, the raja also presented an
honorary dress, with all its accoutrements, and a creese with a golden sheath
and handle, and a sword bound with gold, and gave him the title of Shah Andoka Mantri,
and ordered him to sit near the raja's feet, along with the bantaras. Then the
Prince married Tun Tiji, and was greatly enamoured of her.
On a certain day the Prince enquired of Tun Tiji, in what
manner Hang Nadim had conveyed her away. "Please Your Majesty," said
Tun Tiji," he neither came near me, nor even almost looked at me; and when
he laid hold of my hand to conduct me on board the prahu, he even muffled his
hands in a cloth." The Prince was highly pleased at this, and Hang Nadim
rose greatly in his estimation. By Tun Tiji the raja had a daughter, named
Arama Devi. The Prince also gave Hang Nadim to wife, one of the Princesses of
Calantan, named Chaw Bok, and he also bestowed on him the title of singanaya.
He begot Tan Aumet Ali, surnamed commonly Sri Patam, and known by the title of
Datok Paduca Tuan di Campung Jelai. He begot Tun Hamzah.
The raja of Pahang, when he lost Tun Tiji, was grievously
enraged at the raja of Malaca. He mounted his elephant Capinyang, and ordered the
bandahara to prepare all the gentles; "for," says he, "I will
attack Malaca. Look all of you, I beseech you, at this elephant Capinyang, this
is the way that he shall assault the public hall of audience of the raja of
Malaca," and he immediately assaulted the hall of his own palace, and
totally demolished it; and all the nobles cast down their looks on the ground, when
they perceived his wrath. Then the Prince went into his palace.
This proceeding of the raja of Pahang was reported to the
Sultan of Malaca. Then the Prince asked amid his champions, "Who of you
now, will go and bring me the elephant of the raja of Pahang, with which he
threatens to assault the hall of my palace. Whoever shall bring it, all his
faults shall be forgiven, even though he have slain a man." Then said the
laksamana Khwajeh Hasan, "If Your Majesty will give me permission, I will
go to Pahang to bring this elephant." "Very well," said the
Prince, and he accordingly got ready, and when he was ready the raja delivered
him a letter, and then the laksamana Khwajeh Hasan immediately set out for
When he reached Pahang, the letter was received with due
form and ceremony, and brought up to the hall of audience. When it was read, all
the hulubalangs successively mounted the dais, and the laksamana, having made
his respects to His Majesty, was seated above Sri Agara, raja of Pahang. Then
the laksamana represented, "Your younger brother of Malaca is informed,
that Your Majesty is greatly enraged against him, for which cause he has sent
me into your presence, to enquire what cause there is that we should enter into
quarrel or contest, brother against brother, when Malaca and Pahang are rather
to be considered as one country than two."
The raja of Pahang, when he heard this, enquired who had conveyed
this information to Malaca, the man is only a tatler, but let the laksamana
only reflect if it be proper that Pahang should war on Malaca. On this the raja
rose up and went into his palace; and those who were in attendance took their
The laksamana, however, moored near the place where the
elephants of Pahang came to be washed, and when the elephant keepers came to
wash the elephants, the laksamana was wont to invite them a shipboard, and give
them to eat and drink, and when they returned he would make them presents of
gold and money; and thus several days were passed till all the keepers grew
greatly attached to Khwajeh Hasan, and the laksamana emptied a part of his
prahu for the convenience of the keepers, when they came aboard to eat and
drink, and treated them with great kindness, taking care they received no
displeasure, and from time to time made them presents of gold and cloth for garments,
so that no day passed without some presents; so that all those people were
greatly attached to him.
Then the laksamana asked permission of the raja of Pahang to
take his departure, and the raja of Pahang sent a letter to Malaca, which was sent
with due ceremony to the laksamana's prahu. That day likewise the elephant
keepers came down to bathe their elephants, and among the rest the raja's own
riding elephant Capinyang. The laksamana called the keeper of this elephant,
and presenting him with four or five tael of gold, prevailed on him to bring
Capinyang on board his prahu. The keeper, from his great attachment to the
laksamana, did so, and the laksamana immediately began to descend the river.
After they had passed four or five points in descending the
river, then the keeper began to feign being in a terrible fright, and pretended
to raise a great alarm, how the laksamana had carried away the raja's elephant
by force. Then all the men of Pahang raised a great hubbub, and reported what
had happened to the raja. When the raja of Pahang was informed of this proceeding
of the laksamana, he was furiously enraged, and said, "The raja of Malaca
treats me precisely like a monkey. He offers a plantain to my mouth, and hooks
my tail with a pointed thorn." He then ordered thirty prahus to be immediately
fitted out; and Sri Agura Raja, with Tun Hari, took the command, and pursued
the laksamana out of the bay, as far as Sadeli Besar, without finding him. But
the laksamana, Khwajeh Hasan, had weighed, and was on his voyage to Malaca.
When he reached Malaca the Raja Sultan Mahmud was highly
gratified at procuring the raja of Pahang's own riding elephant, Capinyang, and
presented the laksamana with an honorary dress, such as was worn by Princes;
and he directed the elephant to be delivered into the custody of Sri Rama. The
fleet of thirty prahus returned, without success, to Pahang, and the raja of
Pahang writhed like a snake with excess of rage, and he appointed his son, Raja
Mansur, who was still young, to succeed him. The government was, therefore,
entrusted to Raja Muzafer and Raja Ahmed, the brothers of Sultan Abdal Jamil;
and Sultan Abdal Jamil retired from the world, and took up his residence above
Pahang, removing further and further off, as long as he heard the sound of the
nobuts, till at last he reached Lubok Palang, where he could hear the nobuts no
longer. There the Prince took up his residence, and devoting himself to
religious exercises, became a Sheikh. This is he who is generally denominated
Sheikh Merhum, or the deceased Sheikh.